World History Notes
High Middle Ages

Jews in Christian Society
- Protected from hostile Christians
- Small businesses, became wealthy as money lenders (to kings, popes & business people)
- Loaned Christian students books and such
- Jewish intellect & sophisticated culture both dazzled & threatened
- Money, intellect, culture encouraged suspicion – still held responsible for Jesus’ death
- Exiled from France, persecuted elsewhere
- Surge in anti-Jewish feelings: kings wanted to confiscate their property & weakening central government = a chance for the church to surge ahead, crusades against infidels (witches, heretics & Jews at home, infidels abroad)
Schools & Universities
- Islamic scholars had preserved the Aristotle, Euclid, Greek medicine texts, Roman law and so on.
- 1st Western University Bologna by Emperor Barbarossa in 1158
- university meant cooperation of students & masters who joined for protection from church authority and local townspeople – students were foreigners in town without civil rights
- students demanded high-quality teaching from their masters – students often set pay, hired teachers, created courses of study
- universities moved from place to place as rents were unfairly increased
- Bologna (Spain) revived Roman Law (using Justinian’s compilation of Roman Law) & expanded it
- Northern Europe studies Theology, later language arts (grammar, rhetoric, logic) & mathematics arts (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music)
- Cathedral schools taught the clergy – strict church doctrine, but later they taught the lay for free
- Businessmen eventually needed Latin and intellectual disciplines, studied with the priests
- Church lost monopoly on education as more secretaries & notaries were needed (vocation schools = colleges)
- Eventuality indistinguishable
- Students were well to do & spoiled – townspeople beat them, later laws were created to forbid the beating of students
- Curriculum = people assumed the truth was already known – no need to go out and find it, truth only needed to be organized clearly & defended, no independence – comment on authoritative texts – truth was drilled into them
- Discover truth by finding contradictions in the arguments against it (Dialectic) Medical students debated known truths & did not work practically (similar to law & theology)
- Few books – learn through memorizing & debate & lecture & discussion – think on one’s feet, Rhetoric (persuasive arguments) were valued – students were walking encyclopedias
- University began for those between 12 & 15 – Latin (3-4 years) then masters (3-4 years) studying classical texts, a degree in theology could take up to 20 years
- Summa = summary of all that was known on a particular subject – a body of clarified truth

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