Otto 1 & Revival of the Empire
- Henry I -- 1st non-Frank to become king of Germany (918)
- Otto I successor (son of Henry I)
- Did not treat duchy as independents, members of unified kingdoms
- Invaded Italy, proclaimed himself king – Otto the Great (955)
- Bishops & Abbots were enlisted – made royal Princes and agents of the king
- They received great land holdings & immunity from local counts & dukes
- Wanted Imperial crown – Pope John XII needed help, he rescued, crowned emperor (962)
- Proclaimed himself protector of Papal states
- Appointed Bishops & Abbots, Pope under emperor
- Pope joined Italian opposition to new emperor, Otto’s revenge = no Pope could take office without swearing allegiance to emperor
- Moved focus to Italy, German base decayed – church prepared for independence

Reviving the Catholic Church
- clergy were tools of the kings & magnates
- papacy a tool of Italian nobles
- a empire failed, the church reformed

Cluny Reform
- aided by popular respect for church & baronial patronage
- church was medieval society’s most democratic institution (any man could THEORETICALLY become Pope)
- all peoples could gain grace & salvation, promise of a better life for people without hope
- 10th & 11th century saw a boom in monastery construction
- Cluny = strict observance of Benedictine monastic rules
- Wanted to maintain a spiritual church
- Reject subservience to royal authority
- Pope was sole ruler of clergy
- No secular control over their monasteries
- No secular clergy/parishes who maintained concubines
- Free from both kings and wives
- Separation of Church & State
- 11th century = papacy embraces reforms
- combat simony (selling of spiritual things like church offices)
- pope Stephen IX ruled without imperial ratification
- 1059, College of Cardinals to elect Pope

Investiture Controversy, major dispute between church and state in the 11th and 12th centuries over the role played by lay princes in the ceremonies by which bishops and abbots were installed in their offices. Specifically at issue was the practice whereby the prince bestowed on the prelate the ring and staff that were the symbols of his spiritual authority.

The practice of investiture by the laity developed in the early Middle Ages, as emperors and kings tried to attach to themselves the wealth and authority prelates possessed by offering them protection in return. The practice was, therefore, a natural outgrowth of the feudal system, in which prelates were often secular rulers as well (and thus vassals of the king). The lay princes were often more concerned that bishops and abbots be loyal to them than that they be morally upright.

Military Religious Orders, organizations of medieval knights, who performed military, religious, and charitable functions, and whose members were bound by strict monastic vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience (see Monasticism). These groups first appeared during the 12th century and flourished during the High Middle Ages.
The three most famous of the military religious orders were the Poor Knights of Christ, also known as the Knights Templar or the Templars; the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, or Hospitalers; and the Teutonic Knights of Saint Mary’s Hospital at Jerusalem, called simply Teutonic Knights. All three were founded in the Holy Land—parts of Palestine that Christians considered holy as the home of Christ. These three orders were important in defending the Crusader states—Christian states that Crusaders from the West had established in Palestine (see Crusades).
The accomplishments of the three groups varied greatly. The Templars became famous for their pioneering methods of banking. The Teutonic Knights waged numerous wars to convert the people of eastern Europe to Christianity and eventually became a powerful force in the trade and politics of the region. Long after the Crusades, the Hospitalers remained a strong bulwark against Muslim invasion of the Eastern Mediterranean and Europe, until their defeat at the hands of French emperor Napoleon I in 1798. Both the Hospitalers and the Teutonic Knights still exist as religious orders of the Roman Catholic Church.
   II    THE POOR KNIGHTS OF CHRIST 
French nobleman Hugh de Payens founded the Poor Knights of Christ in 1119 with eight of his companions. The order was founded in Jerusalem, which had been captured by Crusaders in 1099, and it occupied a house near the Temple of Solomon. As a result, it soon acquired the popular name Knights Templar, or simply Templars.
In 1128 the pope granted the order a charter, and the famous Cistercian monk Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) fashioned a rigorous rule for the Templars modeled on that of his own order. Bernard’s rule governed the Templars’ daily duties and outlined a simple, religious way of life. The Templars spent part of each day in prayer, and they observed the monastic vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
The Knights’ administration was highly centralized. The order’s leader was called the grand master, and he presided over three ranks of members: knights, chaplains, and sergeants. Only the highest rank, the knight, was permitted to wear the order’s distinctive clothing, a white tunic with a red Latin Cross on the back. The grand master was responsible only to the pope, and the many Templar installations in Palestine and Europe were also free from the control of kings and bishops.
The first duties of the order included providing military escorts to religious pilgrims making the journey from the Mediterranean to Jerusalem. However, as the Templars’ popularity increased in the 12th century, they developed into a formidable band of knights. Numbering around 20,000 at their peak, the Templars established fortresses in many cities in Palestine and came to be very important in defending the Crusader states, especially the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, from attacks by Muslim forces.
By the end of the 12th century, military success in the Holy Land had brought the Templars wealth as well as rich gifts of land in Palestine and Europe. The order received generous contributions from the Church, and often rulers in Europe donated land or money to the Templars instead of going to the Holy Land themselves. The order regularly provided a force of 300 knights for the defense of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. To support their military units, the Templars drew upon the money produced by their lands in Europe and Palestine. To speed the movement of funds between their various outposts, they developed a sophisticated banking system. Since the Templars were one of the few groups strong enough to safely transport money to and from the Holy Land, Western kings, nobles, and merchants came to rely upon them for this service. As a result, the Knights gradually became bankers for a large part of Europe and amassed great wealth and power.

Crusades, a risky proposition
1095 Pope Urban
for the lay people to participate in religious zeal
Byzantine Empire under pressure from the Turks, appealed for help
Send idle, restless youth (who were feuding with each other – need land) aristocrats with their war toys 100,000 total – fortunes to be made
Re-united with Eastern Chruch?
Hot blood & greed
Plenary indulgences, should they die in battle (remission of outstanding temporal punishment for unrepented sins – no purgetory
Romance – kill infidels: save the holy land
Anti-jewish riots & massacres
1099 -- 1st was a success – jerusalem divided – fiefs from the Pope (supposedly)
1187 – Jerusalem reconquered by Turks

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