World History
High Middle Ages
Chapter 13 – essays (40 points)
Due, Tuesday, March 6th

Choose one of the following:
Answer the question fully, with as many facts and data as your essay deserves – more support (with facts) equals a higher grade.  Use paragraphs to organize your answer.

1) What events and situations gave rise to towns?  How did towns change medieval society?  Be certain to include the following in your answer: merchants, lords, kings, charters, trade, guilds, and social mobility.
2) What were the motives behind the crusades?  What was the outcome?  Who encouraged people to fight in them?  What was the long-term benefit, if any, from these crusades? Be certain to include the following in your essay: first, second, & third crusades, Richard the Lionhearted, Pope Urban, Byzantine Empire, the Turks, infidels, Jerusalem, plenary indulgence, and trade.
3) Describe the changes of the Roman Catholic Church in this era.  How does the church regain its power? What does it do with its newfound place in medieval society?  Be certain to include the following in your essay: Cluny Reform, Investiture Controversy, Pope Gregory, excommunication, cathedral schools, regular & secular clergy, crusades, and Concordat of Worms.

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