Africa (Chapter 6)
- World’s second largest continent
- Evidence suggests first humans came from Africa
- Civilization? What defines civilization?
- Writing, urban life, use of metal
- Or: intellectual, cultural, art
- still much we do not know about “early” Africa
- westerners have not had access
- no writing, small local governments, no large urban centers
- as late as 1880, 25% of Western Africans were stateless
- tropical climate destroys artifacts
- little is known about the Nok & Zimbabwean cultures (hard to decipher remains)
- 1/5th of the Earth’s land mass

African People
- humanoid ancestors roamed Africa 1.8 million years ago
- we are all African by decent
- Europeans “discovered” Africans relatively recently
- Isolated geographically, but trade through Indian Ocean & Mediterranean existed
- Between 1000 and 3000 languages can be found
- 4 major groups
- Afro-Asiatic
- Nilo-Saharan
- Niger-Kongo
- Khoisan
- plus two language groups introduced through colonization
- western Europe (Indo-European)
- Malayo-Polynesian

Africa (west & north)
- hunters & gatherers + agriculture up to modern times *(in some areas)
- used copper in 2000 BCE
- iron came from western Asia through Egypt
- 730 BCE Kush conquers Egypt
- 5 successive Pharaohs were Kushites
- using iron & smelting, learned from the Assyrians, Kush pushes boundaries
- Meroe in Kush becomes metal capitol of central Africa
- 300 BCE Ethiopians overthrow Kush
- most of Africa (south of the Sahara) remains in the stone age until the Europeans come
- Ethiopia in 400 ace becomes one of the first Christian kingdoms in the world
- For centuries Ethiopia was the only Christian nation in Africa *(Egypt was Christian but Arab invasions brought Islam
- Ethiopia only literate, non-Muslim African country for centuries
- Arab invaders provide first direct written evidence of Africa (non-North)
- Shocked by the nakedness
- Ghana (west Africa) becomes important to Arabs = Gold
- Traded with Arabs
- Mali eventually overcomes Ghana
- Mali king was so rich he had 10,000 horses in his stables
- Arabs converted much of Northern & Western Africa to Islam
- South African history is even harder to discover than the North

Africa (south)
- people speaking Bantu migrated south from Nigeria
- met with Arab traders (from Persian Gulf) along the Eastern Coast (Zanzibar)
- Indonesians brought asian crops, settled Madagascar
- In the 1491, Portuguese sighted Cape of Good Hope
- Discovered Azanian - used eloborate mining, canals, wells
- Great gold supply
- Only big stone buildings Great Zimbabwe (8th century to 16th century)
- by 15th century  slave trade, Arabs for centuries; now Europe
- 1441 to 1500 approximately 150,000 slaves exported by Portuguese