Women’s Suffrage – Chapter 10, section 4 (pages 355 – 359)

The road to Suffrage
- officially began 1848 in Seneca Falls, NY, though A. Adams asked her husband to “remember the women” in 1776
- National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
- Prior to NAWSA many rights had been won (buying & selling & willing property)
- Struggle against social roles – women at home
- Myra Bradwell denied a state license (IL) to practice law, Supreme Court upheld: “wide difference in the respective spheres and destinies of man and woman”
- Women became involved in volunteer organizations: lobbying officials, publicizing their cause, social work, picketing, unions, & getting arrested
- Anti-suffragists: women were powerful enough without the vote, right to vote would blur distinctions between men & women – make women masculine
- Liquor lobbyists opposed suffrage, worried that women would establish prohibition
- Two strategies:
- 1- state by state, individual states grant voting rights (effective in the West)
- 2- amendment to the constitution  1868 amendment proposed (Susan B. Anthony)
- 1887 – 16 for / 24 against / 26 absent
- brought before congress every year thru 1896, disappeared until 1913
- revitalized by a more accepting population in the early 20th century
- Carrie Chapman Catt & Alice Paul (part of the English suffrage movement)
- Re-organized the NAWSA – worked precinct by precinct – parades
- Wilson’s pre-inauguration – no one there to greet him
- Paul forms Congressional Union to by-pass NAWSA (she was expelled)
- CU more aggressive (burned Wilson’s speeches, protested in front of the White House, burned a life sized dummy of Wilson, hunger strikes, prison)
- NAWSA condemned them
- 1917, NAWSA had 2 million members (NY accepts suffrage – 172 electoral votes)
- WW1 helps to change public opinion as women take jobs left by men
- Prohibition occurs, liquor lobby drops opposition to suffrage
- 1918, amendment formally proposed again
- political forces of states already accepting suffrage & embarassed by treatment of Paul’s CU women in jail
- Finally, ratified in 1920 – Tennessee
- Passed state legislature by one vote (an anti changed his mind at the last minute, following a letter from his widowed mother)

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