Alien & Sedition Acts 1798
Adams increases the size of the army, raises taxes to support a larger army/navy
Opposition to these measures & the effects of the XYZ affair lead to much criticism of the National Gov.
[Alien] President has the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries
[Sedition] persons, who write, publish or say anything "false" can be fined or jailed
Can’t criticize the government, unless you can prove what is stated
These acts are used to silence the opposition *in this case the opposition in the DR
Talk of civil war & breakdown of the Union
Jefferson leads resolutions in State Gov. – placing limits on Fed. Powers
Election of 1800 (known as the ‘revolution of 1800’)
- Newspapers supporting Jefferson painted Adams as a Monarch
- Federalists newspapers said Jefferson was a Godless man, leading the US toward Chaos
- Jefferson won the popular vote, but no Majority in Electoral College [tied w/Aaron Burr, also a DR]
- DR won congress too, but would not take office in time to vote (in House of Reps)
- Important test for the young nation, The Federalists did step aside and hand power to Jefferson
- Graduated Princeton at age 16 w/distinction [entered at 13]
- Studied Theology & Law, after being a colonel under Washington in REV war
- Practiced Law in NY, elected to State Legislature, then attorney general
- 1791 Senator of NY, defeating Hamilton’s father in law
- Tied w/Jefferson in 1800 Pres. Election
- Burr was sympathetic toward France, Jefferson a pacifist
- Burr was a progressive, a liberal, and a revolutionist who believed that America was our proper domain
- In congress, Hamilton degraded Burr feverishly
- While VP, Jefferson ignored him
- 1804 duel w/Hamilton, killing him
The Duel – HAMILTON & BURR
- 1797 Alexander Hamilton's affair with a woman named Maria Reynolds
- James T. Callender reveals details of Hamilton's infidelity and attempts to link it to a scheme by Reynolds' husband to illegally manipulate federal securities for profit
- He rightfully proclaims innocence of any illegal schemes and apologizes for the affair. While some undoubtedly admire his candor, Hamilton' s power begins to wane.
- 1800 Aaron Burr publishes a document written by his political enemy, Alexander Hamilton. This document titled "The Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq., President of the United States" attacks Adams and his presidency. Hamilton had intended this lambasting of his fellow Federalist for private circulation only
- The document causes an irreparable rift in the Federalist Party -- and increases the enmity between Hamilton and Burr.
Hamilton helps decide the outcome of the deadlocked presidential election. Burr, Jefferson's vice-presidential candidate, used his influence in New York to deliver the state's electoral votes to himself and Jefferson
- Burr and Jefferson tied in the total number of electoral votes. Congress will vote to decide who should be president. Hamilton, like most Federalists, is opposed to Jefferson. But he also deeply distrusts Burr, and Burr has attacked him politically
- Hamilton campaigns against Burr, but his efforts have little impact. Still, Congress votes to make Jefferson president.
- 1804 February: His political power dwindling, Alexander Hamilton tries to convince New York Federalists not to support Aaron Burr in the New York governor's race. If Burr gains control of New York, he will gain great power -- something that Hamilton deeply fears
- Hamilton's attacks on Burr have little effect on the governor's race. Burr loses the general election to Republican Morgan Lewis by a landslide
- Furious over remarks allegedly made by Hamilton during the campaign and anxious to repair his failing career, Burr challenges Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton reluctantly accepts the challenge.
- March: Thomas Jefferson names New York Governor George Clinton as his running mate for the 1804 presidential elections. Burr helped provide the New York electoral votes that Jefferson needed to win the presidency in 1800, but Jefferson has effectively driven Burr out of the Republican Party. The slight undoubtedly hurts Burr's chances in the New York governor's race
- July: Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr meet to fight a duel. The men have been enemies for years, but in the end, a minor slight touches off the duel.
- In the early 1800’s – Native Americans faced further encroachment on their land
- Ohio, Mississippi, New York, Indiana – these were the new "battles"
- Various strategies included: accept the White culture, blend Indian & White culture, return to Indian religious traditions, war
- Blending: accept reservation life, return to religious ritual – abandon war – adopt farming & family life
- Among the Shawnee, Delaware & Miami – an Indian religious leader came, Tenskewatwa, THE PROPHET
- Called for a rejection of European values
- Established Prophetstown, on the Wabash River, near today’s Lafayette, Indiana
- Offered dignity & stable life among Indians...as time passed a warlike attitude emerged & his brother Tecumseh aided
- Tecumseh believed the Indians only hope was to band together
- Losing south central Indiana – since Indian land is held communally or "in-common" – the Governor of Indiana, William Henry Harrison, persuaded a few Indians to sign away the land on behalf of the whole...when the rest of the tribe protested, the Gov. ignored them. [a common trick in treaties with Indians]
- Tecumseh explained the Harrison that these actions would cause war
- While Tecumseh was in Alabama & Mississippi trying to get the Choctaw & Creek to join the resistance, Harrison attacked Prophetstown
- Battle of Tippecanoe – no one won, but the battle eroded Indian confidence
- A few days later Harrison burned an abandoned Prophetstown
- In the War of 1812, Tecumseh rallied fighters to fight with Britain (He dies fighting in Canada)