American Revolution, The Fighting Begins
- British use 7000 German mercenaries (Hessians)
- They have a "savage" reputation as fighters
- British did not "respect" the Colonial Army or Washington
- British Held NYC, Colonials did not possess a Navy...NYC is an island
- Colonial Army consists of soldiers from various states...this is the first time many of these different peoples meet one another...like those from other countries
- 1776 America is not ONE or a nation – they are separate states with separate perspectives & cultures
Fighting in 1776
- 100 yards away...muskets & musket balls could not be "aimed" and shot with a consistent targeted hit
- So, clump men together & blast away....shoot in volleys
BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND
- British (Euro style) one big decisive battle determines outcome
- Colonials hold some high ground on Long Island, but are cut off when part of the British Army sneaks around them and traps them from the front & from behind
- The Whole Colonial Army is trapped
- They retreat in disorder (no training) – run for your life through the swamps
- In European War, one losing well is better respected than winning badly
- After the retreat, British allow Washington a few days to gather himself for the surrender, it’s Gentlemanly
- Washington has his troops leave the night fires burning while they ferry across the river undercover of darkness
- British are stunned (Washington is the last to leave)
- In NYC, the Tories & loyalists are supportive of the British Army
- Foolish to fight a European Style War
- Colonists have no training
- Hit & Run tactics...attack & retreat – preserve the army
- Congress has no real power, power lies in states
- How to get reinforcements??? How to entice soldiers??? How to raise an army???
- Enlistments are up DECEMBER 31, 1776
- Winter stops fighting (European Civility & Practicality)
- Washington is rumored to be relieved of duty....
- Washington crosses the Delaware River...battle of Trenton....
- December 23: all or nothing "Victory or Death"
- Attacks Hessians, drunk and sleeping from Christmas....success
- Onto Princeton, where the Colonials defeat the British in a small skirmish...
- Washington is a hero