The Wampanoag Indians lived in Massachusetts and Rhode Island
Numbered about 12,000, & epidemics, which devastated the Wampanoag population. By 1675 there were probably only a thousand
relations were friendly at first
SQUANTO, captured by the English in 1614, taken to Europe where he learned English
taken back to America as an interpreter, where he found his entire village had been wiped out by disease
SQUANTO helped the English survive the early years, invited to the first "Thanksgiving"
SQUANTO introduces the English in Massachusetts to Massasoit, Sachem of the Wampanoags
Wampanoags traded with the English, for land and supplies, became intertwined with them, culturally
Wampanoags felt no pressure from the English at first, the English appeared weak and few in number
Narragansett thought that the two would ally themselves
This relationship began to crumble with "The Great Migration" which began in 1630
These were Puritans who looked down on the Indians and usually treated them with disdain.
Puritans expanded and Pequoit Indians were destroyed in the Pequoit War of 1637
only Indians who were allowed to stay on the English land were the "praying Indians"
"praying Indians" were those who were converted to Christianity
By 1675, the English population had risen to between 40,000 and 50,000, which was about three times as large as the Indians in the area were.
The Wampanoags under the leadership of
Massasoit had signed treaties with the English and had lived peacefully with them
Massasoit agreed to allow the English to have 12,000 acres (conjecture: did Massasoit know that he gave the land to them or was he allowing them to occupy it)
Massasoit even gave his children English names, Alexander, Philip (Metacomet) and Amie
Massasoit died his successor was Alexander, his grandson. Alexander died in a suspicious manner. In 1662 the English summoned Alexander to Duxbury. Alexander answered all of the questions put forth by the English and after this interrogation was invited to dine at Josiah Winslow’s house in Marshfield. While there he became ill with fever and died. Many Indians felt that the English had poisoned him
Metacomet sensed that the English would not stop expanding and began asking for help from other tribes
the traders and Praying Indians alerted the English to Metacomet’s plans
1671 the English summoned "Philip" to the town of Tounton, where they accused him of plotting against the English – they made him surrender all the guns of the Wampanoag, but Philip only surrendered the guns of his party
KING PHILIP’S WAR (Part Two – The War
1671, Philip signed an agreement with the Plymouth Colony. In it he agreed that he and his people were subjects of the royal government and bound by the colony laws.
Continually working to establish alliances,Philip was promised support from the Nipmuc, Pocumtuc, and Narragansett tribes. These tribes began to plan an uprising for the spring of 1676.
In January of 1675, the body of John Sassamon, a 'praying Indian' and informer, was found dead
Three Wampanoag Indians were tried for this crime
The three were tried with a jury of both Englishman and Indians. The only problem was that the Indians were only observers, they were not allowed to vote on the verdict. The defendants were found guilty and sentenced to be hung.
King Philip holds a "war council" with other tribes
the Narragansett had signed a peace treaty with the English and would not join in the rising at this time
war began in the spring of 1675, not 1676 as Philip had planned
The colonists faced a daunting task as King Philip had at least 1,000 warriors
The tribes had gathered fire arms from the French and the English and had forges, which allowed them to manufacture their own guns
in the early part of 1675, the Wampanoags often defeated the English the following is an example of the war fare:
As the command of 80 men approached the area where the mill was, they had to cross a brook at a ford. Here they were lax in security while crossing. Many of the weapons were placed on wagons as they pushed them across the brook. Some of the men were even gathering grapes alongside the road. Apparently they had no idea that any Indians were in the vicinity. In the midst of the crossing the Indians struck. The troop was decimated with only 7 or 8 men able to escape the slaughter.
the English feared the Narragansett would soon join the Wampanoags and attacked them, despite their treaty (also the Narragansett supplied and housed the Wampanoags)
though the Wampanoags were winning the battles, they could not plant crops and were running short of food
their new strategy was to capture towns, they did this with heavy casualties
the Narragansett joined the Wampanoags and were soon raiding and fighting
Canonchet, the sachem of the Narragansett, was captured by a Mohegan, fighting for the English
the English decided to attack a base where much of the food and forges were located, they discovered this through the praying Indians, former Wampanoags, fighting with the English
the attack was a success in that it destroyed the base and its food and forges
King Philip was in trouble
hunted by praying Indians and rangers (farmers and other "friendly Indians")
August 1, 1676 – King Philip was killed by a praying Indian
About 200 Indians surrendered, were secured and taken to Boston, Mass. where they were sold as slaves
The settlers had lost about 600 dead (3 million with today’s standards)
The Indians fared far worse. The tribes in New England were decimated, with the few survivors fleeing to French Canada or to the west.
Those Indians captured were sold as slaves in the West Indies, with the revenues being used to offset the costs of the war