US HISTORY 1920’s (culture continues)

Harlem Renaissance

·       Harlem (NYC) grew from 50,000 (AF-AM) 1914 to 200,000 in 1930

·       National center for Jazz but also a literary awakening

·       James Weldon Johnson – writer and executive for NAACP

·       Zora Neale Hurston – Countee Cullen – Langston Hughes



·       Varied levels of enforcement and/or obedience

·       95% compliance in Kansas – 5% in NYC

·       Sharp contrast between rural & urban morality

·       Bootleggers = hid flasks in their boots – meaning changes to supply illegal alcohol

·       Smuggled from Caribbean or Canada or stills in the US made from corn, grain, potatoes, or fruit

·       Speakeasies = illegal bars – needed membership cards (generally)

·       Led to a rise in organized crime – controlling distribution of alcohol

·       Gangsters fought for control of alcohol, prostitution, gambling, and racketeering (force to pay for ‘protection’)

·       157 bombs went off in one year in Chicago – assisting the need for ‘protection’



The problem of evolution surfaces in public schools


1)   Science & technology were becoming more prominent

2)   War and social issues were causing citizens to wonder/question whether God exists

3)   Some scholars were saying the Bible was written by humans (it contained historical inaccuracies & contradicted itself)


·       Fundamentalists responded by saying: the Bible was inspired by God and cannot contain contradictions or errors – the Bible is literally true – every story actually took place

·       Fundamentalists were led by Billy Sunday

·       They worked for passage of laws to prevent the teaching of evolution

·       Tennessee passed such a law – a teacher named John Scopes challenged and tested the law in court = Scopes trial – William Jennings Bryan (Fundamentalist lawyer) vs. Clarence Darrow (defended Scopes) – in the dramatic conclusion Darrow put Bryan on the stand, under oath Bryan admitted he did not read all of the Bible literally – Creation vs. Science & Reason

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