Emancipation Proclamation:  All slaves free in the South
Slaves referred to as “FREED PEOPLE”
- traveled to reunite families
- formed new organizations (churches – drama organizations – trade associations)
- education (90% were illiterate due to laws forbidding teaching slaves)
- 1865-70 – 30 African American colleges were formed
- own land
Congress established Freedman’s Bureau in 1865 to help build lives (clothing, medical assistance, meals)
   Most importantly – Schools
What were the terms under which the Southern states would be re-admitted?
- in December 1863, Lincoln allowed Southern states to be re-admitted if they endorsed the 13th Amendment, but did not have to ensure African American’s rights
- Other Republicans wanted to change southern society to ensure African American rights, punish Southern states (Wade-Davis Bill, Lincoln refused to sign)
- President Andrew Johnson was forgiving of the South; establish pardons for taking an oath of loyalty to the USA
- Once in the “Union” – Southern states weakened Johnson; enacting Black Codes (slavery with a different name)
- Congress passed a Civil Rights Act (1866), Johnson vetoed it – Congress over-rides it
- 14th Amendment passed 1868 (all persons born in US are citizens, no states can restrict their rights)
- 1867 Military Reconstruction Act, South divided into 5 sections, governed by military generals – ensured all former slaves could vote & no one who had supported Confederacy could vote for delegates to establish new state constitutions (ratify 14th Amendment)
- Congress attempted to impeach Johnson, fell one vote short
- 15th Amendment: no citizen could be denied the right to vote (South eventually found ways around this)
Successful implementation?
- Republicans at state level needed support from Feds
- “Carpetbaggers” = Northern Republicans who moved south
- “Scalawags” = Southerners (White) who became Republicans
- state governments made to commit to public education
- African Americans allowed access to transportation & hotels (unendorsed)
- Republican economics (railroads, banks, & business)
Southerners Reinvent the Wheel called Slavery
- Debt peonage = contracts offered to laborers for advanced moneys, pay all debts before they moved on...somehow debts just got larger & larger
- Sharecropping = rent land to freed men & poor whites – crop owned by someone else, in return for seed and supplies 1/3 to ½ of crops given to land owner
- Tenant Farmers = paid cash for rental of land...agreed to sell their crops at a local merchant who gave them tools and supplies before harvest
- Low cotton prices cause debt...debt causes more debt...cannot be paid off...trapped (like debt peonage)
- Ku Klux Klan (social club in Tennessee) defend to social & political superiority of Whites, protect Whites from an inferior race
- Intimidation
- Congress passed Enforcement Acts or KKK acts (1871) too late
Earlier Presidential Voting Confusions
- Rutherford Hayes (1876) lost popular vote to Democrat Samuel Tilden...electoral vote in dispute
- Compromise = Hayes President if he removes Federal troops, Southern Democrats would regain control of the South

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