Notes on Industry = Politics (251 to 256)
Gilded Age
- Mark Twain...thin layer of glitter over a cheap base
- Widespread corruption, failure of presidents to solve economic & social issues
- “laissez-faire” Policies – hands off approach – business had no regulation
- many Americans supported “darwinistic” theories, but in practice wanted government involvement when it helped business...high tariffs on imported goods or government assistance in railroads
- Central Pacific Railroad budgeted 500,000 for bribes each year
- Spoils System = elected officials were free to appoint friends
- Republican & Democratic parties
- Republicans: Northeast, upper Midwest = favored tight money supply, high tariffs to protect business, generous pensions for union soldiers, aid to railroads, restrict immigration, supported blue drinking on Sundays
- Democrats: those less privileged, northern urban immigrants, laborers, southern planters, western farmers, claimed to represent ordinary people (Andrew Jackson), favored silver based dollar to increase money supply, raise farm prices...opposed blue laws
Education (272 –275)
1870 – 2% of all 17 year olds graduated from high school
- school year lasted just a few months
- reformers and parents wanted more education for their children (effects of industry)
- public education assimilated immigrant children (cleanliness, thrift, patriotism, hard work)
- some resisted...Chicago Polish immigrants went to Roman Catholic schools
- moneys for school unequally distributed between whites (affluence) & blacks / Mexican Americans
- 1880 – 1900 250 new colleges/universities = pressure to include women, some established ‘sister’ schools: Columbia = Barnard, Harvard = Radcliff – however some religious private schools had admitted women since the 1830’s Oberlin, Knox, Antioch...
- Fisk & Howard opened after Civil War and accepted women, though it is estimated there were only 30 African American women in college in 1891
- Women might be made too independent by college, becoming unmarriable
- 1890 about 160 African Americans attending white colleges
- Booker T. Washington vs. W.E.B. Du Bois debate in African American education
- Washington = taught skills & attitudes to succeed in violent & discriminatory environs, use intellect to be productive in occupations whites needed them to fill – his ideas relieved whites who feared educated blacks might be difficult to manage
- Du Bois = Fisk grad. first African American to get Ph.D. from Harvard...liberal arts education & lead their people, not define themselves as whites saw them...pride in both heritages
- available Advanced degrees separated USA from other industrialized countries

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