CIVIL WAR BATTLES
Shiloh, TN – April 1862
- Lee surprised the Union, won 1st day
- Grant would not retreat, with reinforcements, won 2nd day
- No one “won” – 13,000 Union dead or wounded, 10,000 Confederate dead or wounded
Mississippi River – April 1862
- seized New Orleans, then Memphis, TN two months later
- 2 forts left on the river, Vicksburg, MS & Port Hudson, Louisiana
Still obsessed with capturing Richmond, VA:
- McClellan (new Head of Union Army) inched toward Richmond (2 miles away in May)
- 100,000 Union Troops
- McClellan = organized, respectful of his soldiers’ needs
- Stonewall Jackson confuses Union with a series of attacks in Virginia
- 50,000 troops taken from McClellan’s forces to protect DC
- Jackson joins Lee in Richmond
- 7 day battle, 30,000 killed or wounded
Antietam (Maryland) – September 1862
- Lee now attacks the North
- Would England recognize the South?
- 6000 dead, 17,000 wounded
- no one won, Lee retreats
Richmond attacked again
- Burnside replaces McClellan
- 110,000 (Union) vs. 75,000 (Confederate)
- Union soundly defeated
Chancellorsville, Virginia – May 1863
- Hooker replaces Burnside
- Union defeated, lost 17,000 men
- Stonewall Jackson dies

STALEMATE

Gettysburg, PA – July 1863
- Lee attacks the North
- 3 day battle
- New Union Commander, Meade settle on the higher ground to defend
- Lee repeatedly tried to capture the higher ground (Little Round Top & Culp’s Hill)
- On the 3rd day, Lee orders an old fashioned charge to break the Union line (Pickett’s charge)
- 14,000 men marched in the open (1 mile) , few survivors
- Lee lost 28,000 men, Union lost 23,000 men
- Lee retreats, the Union does not follow
Vicksburg, MI – April 1863
- Grant tries (has tried) for months to capture Vicksburg
- Naturally defensible, so Grant ferries his men across to a more penetrable side
- Chases the Confederates into the city, but could not defeat them
- A siege is in place – prolonged attack against soldiers & citizens, starving & bombarding
- 47 day siege ends on July 3, with Vicksburg surrendering
- 5 days later Port Hudson surrenders
Grant now appointed Head of Union Army
- new plan, fight Lee until he tires, send Sherman (general) to fight the other portion in Georgia
Sherman’s march to the sea
- captures Atlanta in September 1864
- could not catch the other Confederate army
- (Lincoln re-elected – Feb 1865 13th Amendment passed)
- Atlanta in flames, Sherman cuts a 60 mile path of destruction across Georgia
- December in reaches Savanna – Sherman wanted the South to be sick of war
Lee & Grant
- Grant outnumbered Lee 2 to 1
- Repeatedly pressing toward Richmond, Lee holds defensive positions
- Grant simply moves to the left and attacks once more
- Stand-off at Petersburg, (almost a year)  Union hems Lee in, Lee surrenders April 9, 1865
- 5 days later Lincoln is assassinated

RECONSTRUCTION
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