US HISTORY

Election of 1860

  • Democrats split over slavery at their convention – south nominates Breckinridge, north nominates Douglas
  • Moderate Southerners (American Party & WHIGS = forming the Constitutional Union Party) meet in Baltimore, choosing John Bell
  • Republican Party nominates Lincoln
  • In the South the race was between Bell & Breckinridge (Lincoln was not even on the ballot)
  • In the North the race was between Douglas & Lincoln
  • Lincoln received only 39% of the votes, but got the necessary 180 electoral votes
  • The South was outraged that a President was elected w/o any southern electoral votes
  • Secessionists argued that since they voluntarily joined the Union, they could voluntarily leave it
  • South Carolina officially secedes the Union – December 20, 1860
  • Early February 1861 six other states leave and form Confederate States of America
  • Last minute compromise fails: restore the 36 30 line – President elect Lincoln opposed it and convinced the Senate to go along
  • Northern businessmen opposed the secession, fearing loss of profits
  • After an attack on Fort Sumter, a federal fort in S. Carolina – 4 more states sucede (Virginia, N. Carolina, Tenn. & Arkansas)

**First Battle of BULL RUN in Virginia, politicians, civilians, reporters followed the untrained soldiers to the battle for a picnic – At first the Union appeared to be winning, but the Confederates received reinforcements, and turned back the Union – the untrained soldiers retreated in disorder, dropping their guns and running, getting tangled with the picnic people

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