Research Paper
Quotes / Paraphrases / Summaries

Direct quote: repeats the words of the source exactly

Paraphrase: repeats an idea from the source but uses different words

Summary:  repeats in different words and at the same time condenses an idea taken from a source

Direct quote: uses quotation marks to signify the start and end of the information; then it has the following – (author’s name page number). Example:  (Edward Samson 98).  Please note the period is after the citation...this information is part of the sentence, not outside of it.

Summaries & paraphrases: does not use quotes, but follow the information with the same citation format.

**Note: for Internet sources & documentary videos there are no page #’s

Tips:  it is wise to introduce your reader to who is (besides you) providing them with information.  For example, below is a direct quote...it can stand by itself and have a misleading impact.  All meaning would be altered if, for instance, these words were spoken (or written) by Big Bird on Sesame Street or by Al Gore or George Bush or by someone’s father at a wedding.  Introducing the “original owner” of the words/information is not only polite, but helps to clarify the meanings and direction of your paper.

"Christopher Columbus is a symbol, not of a man, but of imperialism. ... Imperialism and colonialism are not something that happened decades ago or generations ago, but they are still happening now with the exploitation of people. ... The kind of thing that took place long ago in which people were dispossessed from their land and forced out of subsistence economies and into market economies -- those processes are still happening today." (John Mohawk)

Although we know that John Mohawk wrote or spoke these words, it would be helpful to know who John Mohawk is.

**Note the indentation...for quotes over three lines, it is best to indent to form what is called a block quote.