World History
Chapter 12 reading guide #2
Pages 324 - 336

Merovingians & Carolingians
What was the main problem facing the kings at this time?

Read the text in the blue box on page 125, how did Clovis convert to Christianity?

What was the purpose of a count?  How were they different from other land-owning aristocrats?

Define the office of ;mayor.  Why did it have so much power?

What is a fief?

Frankish Church
Who were the Franks' enemies?
Why were the monasteries important?

Who drove the Pope and the church from Rome?
Who protected the church from future invasions?

Reign of Charlemagne (768-814)
When the Franks “brutally” converted others to Christianity, which creed did profess?

The New Empire
What was the goal of Charlemagne?
Explain the relationship between the church & Charlemagne?
What happened on Christmas Day in the year 800?

The New Emperor
Describe Charlemagne’s personality.

Why did his eldest son, Pepin, attempt to kill Charlemagne?

Problems of Government
What were the duties of the Count under Charlemagne?

What is a divine test?
What was the purpose of a Duke or prefect?
What is the difficulty Charlemagne faces when he wants to control his empire?

Aleuin & the Carolingian Renaissance
What does renaissance mean?
What sort of advanced learning & teaching is taking place at Aachen?

The Manor & Serfdom
What is a Lord?
What is a Freeman?
What is a Serf?
How do they work together on a Manor?

What is a moldboard plow?  What advantages does it offer?

Religion & The Clergy
Who choose the priest of the churches on the lands of lords?
What did ordinary people do to participate in Christianity?

What is a relic?  How is Charlemagne similar to his people?

Louis the Pious (814 – 840)
How is he related to Charlemagne?
Why did the empire get divided into 3 kingdoms, when Louis the Pious wanted Lothar to be his only heir?

The Treaty of Verdun & Its Aftermath
Who does the Pope acknowledge as the emperor?
After Lothar dies, his kingdom (the Middle Kingdom) is divided among his 3 sons.  Why does this weaken the Middle Kingdom? (This friction is the basis for many wars up to the present.)

Which people begin to attack the kingdoms in the 9th and 10th centuries?

What is the social order of a feudal society?

What are the three divisions of persons in a feudal society?

What is the Vassi?
How are the Vassi (vassals) paid for their service to a lord?

Vassalage and the Fief
What is a Fealty?
What were the duties of a vassal?  How could he leave his Lord, honorably?

What were the obligations of a Lord to a vassal?

What is the pyramid like effect that occurs to the King’s vassals?

Fragmentation & Divided Loyalty
Why are their problems of loyalty among the Freemen?  How did the lords attempt to solve them?

How is this arrangement the basis for today’s understanding of Nation & State?

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